Billing of Quantities (BOQ) | Types | Example BOQ | Advantages and Limitations

An example for Billing of Quantities (Source Youtube channel Civil Engineer)

What is Bill of Quantities (BOQ) Bill of Quantities also referred to as BOQ, is a document formulated in the construction industry to specify materials, labors, and their cost. It serves as a communication tool between client, consultant & the contractor. It is usually prepared by a cost consultant or a surveyor. Primarily there are two … Read more

Total Station |Components | Functions | Advantages of Total Station Survey

Total Station Models from Various Total Station Manufacturers

Total Station is an equipment used in surveying, designed for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, inclusive of measuring sloping distance of object to the instrument. It is a combination of electronic theodolite and electromagnetic distance measuring (EDM) instrument. It also consists of a micro-processor with a memory unit which deals with recordings, readings, and the … Read more

Local Attraction in Compass Surveying | Elimination methods | Magnetic field of Earth

Correcting observation for Local attraction – YouTube

Local attraction & Compass Surveying Local attraction is the phenomenon by which the magnetic needle is constantly prevented to point towards the magnetic north at a place. This is because that these magnetic compass is influenced by other magnetic objects at that locality such as wires carrying electric current, rails, steel and iron structures, steel … Read more

Compass Surveying| Types of Compass | Advantages & Disadvantages of Compass Surveying | Example

Prismatic compass (

Compass surveying Compass surveying is the branch of surveying in which the position of an object is located using angular measurements determined by a compass and linear measurements using a chain or tape. Compass surveying is used in following circumstances: If the surveying area is large, chain surveying is not adopted for surveying rather compass … Read more