Cracking in Masonry Walls or Brick Boundary Walls | Causes & Prevention

Cracking and Failure of Masonry Brick Boundary walls.jpg -

Cracking in Masonry Wall and Brick Boundary Walls Brittle Cracking in Masonry Wall is one of the most common failure modes in brick wall structures. Stone and brick masonry walls are widely used for load bearing and non-load bearing applications. Brick masonry is most commonly used as load bearing structure for non-RC framed structures in … Read more

Groundwater Mapping | Aquifer Mapping | Significance & Procedures


Groundwater Mapping or Aquifer Mapping Groundwater mapping or aquifer mapping is the process of delineating the presence of ground water in aquifers, followed by the analysis of its quality, quantity, movement and sustainability. About 30% of world’s fresh water supply is ground water, i.e., 0.76% of entire world’s water. Researches confirm that it is a … Read more

Effects of Capillary Water on Structures and Foundation | Preventing damage


What is meant by Capillary water in buildings? Construction materials, like concrete, aggregates and sand, are porous and allows water molecules to rise due to capillary action. This creates a ring of dampness in base of buildings or structure including lateral walls due to accumulation of capillary water. The principle behind the capillary rise is … Read more

Maintenance of Residential Buildings | Types | Objectives | Checklist

Marine Corrosion of handrail baseplate and anchor bolts on Jetty or Pier 3.jpg -

Why Inspection & Structural Maintenance is important? “ Life expectancy “ is not just a term associated with a living, breathing being, but even with an immobile non-living element, like a building. According to researchers, the general lifespan of a concrete building lies in the average range of 75 to 100 years. And for a … Read more

Construction on Permafrost | Design Considerations & Maintenance

Construction on Permafrost

Permafrost in Construction Permafrost is the soil or rock with or without water that continuously remains at a state of 00 C (320F) or below for two years or more. It is mostly found in subzero Polar Regions and high-altitude mountain ranges. Building construction on permafrost is quite different from normal construction methods that we … Read more

Cracks in Concrete | Types & Causes of Concrete Cracking

Flexural cracks on pavement slab due to lack of reinforcement or expansion of subgrage -

Cracks in concrete are quite common phenomena. But unforeseen cracking in concrete that are not anticipated in design stage, affects the durability and integrity of structure. This in-turn results in poor performance on the structure over its service life.

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) | Simple Explanation | Significance

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Definition of Reinforced Cement Concrete    Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is a composite building material consisting of structural concrete reinforced with a reinforcing material like steel. The most common reinforcement used is steel, due to its complimentary properties and it is called steel reinforced cement concrete or simply Reinforced Cement Concrete. … Read more

Cement Mortar | Estimation of Cement, Sand & Water in Mortar | Types of Mortar & Applications

Cement mortar used for laying of bricks (Source YouTube-Слава Храмцов)

Cement Mortar Cement Mortar is one of the most common and cheapest binding materials used in construction industry. Cement mortar is basically a mixture of cement, sand & water. It is used in various aspects of civil engineering works such as masonry, brickwork, plastering, flooring etc. There are two types, dry mortar and wet mortar. … Read more

Billing of Quantities (BOQ) | Types | Example BOQ | Advantages and Limitations

An example for Billing of Quantities (Source Youtube channel Civil Engineer)

What is Bill of Quantities (BOQ) Bill of Quantities also referred to as BOQ, is a document formulated in the construction industry to specify materials, labors, and their cost. It serves as a communication tool between client, consultant & the contractor. It is usually prepared by a cost consultant or a surveyor. Primarily there are two … Read more

Total Station |Components | Functions | Advantages of Total Station Survey

Total Station Models from Various Total Station Manufacturers

Total Station is an equipment used in surveying, designed for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, inclusive of measuring sloping distance of object to the instrument. It is a combination of electronic theodolite and electromagnetic distance measuring (EDM) instrument. It also consists of a micro-processor with a memory unit which deals with recordings, readings, and the … Read more