Total Station |Components | Functions | Advantages of Total Station Survey

Total Station Models from Various Total Station Manufacturers

Total Station is an equipment used in surveying, designed for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, inclusive of measuring sloping distance of object to the instrument. It is a combination of electronic theodolite and electromagnetic distance measuring (EDM) instrument. It also consists of a micro-processor with a memory unit which deals with recordings, readings, and the … Read more

Preloaded Bolts (Pre-tensioned Bolts) | Advantages | Applications

Manual Pretensioning of Preloaded Bolts

Preloaded Bolt Bolts are tightened such that a high tension, usually above yield strength, is developed in the bolts, these are called preloaded bolts. The plates of the connection are thus clamped together and shear transfer between the plates is achieved through friction. Preload is the tension load developed in a fastener while tightening. The … Read more